This story has been updated. It was first published in June 10, 2020.

As vaccines continue to roll out across the US, some states have lifted mask mandates and restrictions. But the guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are adamant that fully vaccinated people still need to wear face coverings indoors, and wherever social distance is not possible—even outdoors.

Those who still haven’t received any shot, or are waiting for the two-week period after their last injection to go by, should keep taking all possible precautions. This means continuing to practice social distance, and wearing a mask whenever you’re outside, or in contact with someone who’s not in your social bubble.

Masks are still very much part of our lives, and still a great way to protect yourself and your community from COVID-19. Luckily, as we’ve been learning more about the virus, we now know that cloth and surgical masks that snuggly cover your nose and mouth slow down the spread of the disease.

Still, not all face coverings are created equal.

The difference between N95 and surgical masks

N95 respirators are stiff masks with a filter that blocks 95 percent of airborne particles and are fit-tested to each healthcare worker to ensure they create a sealed barrier. Like most personal protective equipment (PPE), N95 masks are meant to be discarded after each use.

In contrast, surgical masks are loose-fitting coverings made of pleated melt-blown fabric: a fine mesh of synthetic polymer fibers that allows the wearer to breathe while blocking tiny particles that could carry the virus. However, they don’t fit as tightly as N95 respirators, so they don’t provide the same protection against smaller airborne particles that may carry the coronavirus, which may persist in the air for minutes to hours.

Surgical masks aren’t meant to shield the wearer from infection, but to protect others by corralling any infectious droplets that may come out of your mouth or nose—whether you’re symptomatic or not.

Cloth masks can help, too. Researchers at the University of New South Wales who studied the use of reusable cloth masks several years ago found that doctors who wore them had a significantly higher chance of respiratory infection. Almost 97 percent of particles got through the cloth masks used in the study, compared with the 44 percent that penetrated synthetic medical masks.

These findings have been backed by more recent studies, that confirm cloth masks are able to reduce the number of droplets that make it into the air, and that may carry the virus. This is why wearing a cloth mask is better than wearing no mask.

The CDC recommends these face coverings as long as the fit is right, they’re made of two or more layers of fabric and have no valves in them.

How to make a mask

Let’s make this clear: masks, no matter how effective, are not guaranteed to protect you from COVID-19.

“A mask is only ever as good as the wearer, and isn’t a replacement for social distancing and good hand hygiene,” says Anna Davies, one of the researchers in the Public Health England study.

And good hygiene extends to cloth masks, too. Everyone, especially those taking care of a sick loved one, should have at least a couple so they can sterilize one while wearing the other.

Our tutorial is a simple project for people who don’t have a sewing machine, adapted from MakerMask by Helpful Engineering, a global open-source COVID-19 project. While many projects call for cotton, Davies says there’s no indication it is better or worse than other fabrics—it’s just comfortable and something people tend to have on hand.

Material cost: less than $5

Tools

Materials

Instructions

1. Wash the reusable grocery bag.

2. Cut the sides off the grocery bag so the material lays flat. Don’t cut off the handles.

3. Cut the material into two sheets. If your bag has a seam at the bottom, cut it like you did the side seams. You’ll get two clean sheets of NWPP, each with its own handle.

4. Measure and cut one sheet. Using your ruler, measure the top edge of the bag to find the center. Mark it with your permanent marker. Using that as a starting point, measure back toward each handle 4 ½ inches and mark again. From each mark, measure down 9 inches and draw parallel vertical cutting lines. Connect the lines at the bottom. You should have a 9-by-9-inch square with a finished (sewn) edge at the top with the handle.

5. Repeat Step 4 on the other sheet of material.

6. Sew the mask’s side seams. Place one sheet with the wrong side (the bag’s former interior) up, and fold half an inch of material in from the edge opposite the handle. Iron the fold on low heat to set it. Then, sew it a quarter inch from the edge. Place the other sheet with the right side (the bag’s former exterior) up, and like the other sheet, fold it in a half-inch, iron it, and sew it a quarter-inch in from the edge.

7. Place the sheets together. Your mask will have two layers of fabric. Place one of the sheets on your work surface with the handle facing to the left. Place the other one on top of it with the handle facing to the right. Pin in place.

8. Make the head ties. Fold the handles in half and cut them at the center. Hold the mask centered over your face with the handles coming out of the sides, and make sure the handles are long enough to reach the back of your head with at least 4 inches to spare.

9. (Optional) Make straps out of ribbon. If the handles of your bag are not long enough to become straps or you’re not using the handles of the bag at all, you’ll need to make your own head ties. If the insufficient handles are still attached to your NWPP sheets, cut them off or use a seam ripper to take them out. Hold the mask in the center of your face and use your measuring tape to figure out the length of each strap—they should each be long enough to go from the edge of your face to the back of your head with at least four extra inches for tying. Cut the ribbons and pin them where the handles used to be. Check the fit by putting your mask on. If the length of the ribbons is right, double your thread and sew the pieces into place on the wrong side of the sheets.

10. Sew the sheets together. Double your thread and sew around all the edges.

11. Finish the bottom edge. Like you did in Step 6, make a half-inch fold at the bottom and iron it. Sew it closed a quarter-inch from the edge.

12. Make the adjustable noseband. Again, fold half an inch of the top edge over and iron it. Twist the pipe cleaners or twist ties together and cut them to the same width as the mask. Fold in their ends to blunt them. Tuck the metal ties inside the fold and pin the fold over them. Then, sew the fold below and on the sides of the ties to hold them in place.

12. Make three folds to pleat the mask for expansion. Pleats should be approximately 1 ½ inches wide on the outside, a half-inch wide on the inside, and be parallel to the nose band. If it helps, mark lines on your fabric, fold them, and then iron them in place. Stitch these in place by sewing both sides a quarter-inch in from the edge. This time, double back your stitch to make sure the pleat seam is strong.

13. Sterilize your mask. Before using it for the first time, submerge your mask in boiling water for 5 minutes. Repeat this step between uses. For other methods, check out our guide on how to sanitize face masks.

It’s important to remember that a face mask by itself is not enough. Make sure you never touch the part of the covering that goes over your nose and mouth, and when you’re done using it, sterilize it, let it dry completely (in the sun if you have access) to stave off any bacteria growth. Finally, store the mask in a clean, plastic, resealable container.

[Related: 5 must-know tips for safely wearing a mask over facial hair]

This DIY mask is not meant to be donated to a hospital, but kept for yourself, your family, and your community. Please follow instructions from your local authorities and remember that getting the COVID-19 vaccine, social distancing, thoroughly washing your hands, and staying home are still the best ways to protect yourself and your family from the virus.

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This story has been updated. It was first published in June 10, 2020. As vaccines continue to roll out across the US, some states have lifted mask mandates and restrictions. But the guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are adamant that fully vaccinated people still need...